Importnace of Document

Explain Role and Importance of Document / Handwriting Expert and Fingerprint Expert :
A document is generally used for noting down the contents of sale /transfer of movable and non movable objects. it bears the signature and thumb impression of the executant and witness .The document may also bears writing including anonymous letters , suicide notes etc.
The document may be genuine or forged and its authenticity can be determined by expert . the document is important due to reason that it relates to transaction and the basic requirement in the routine life .
The document is important piece of evidence in the court of law for justice. it contains all the facts mentioned in detail relating to dealings between the parties.
Some time the body writing of the document is changed by making addition or alterations genuinely or fraudulently. The genuine changes are made in a bold manner and are clearly evident even to the naked eye and are never made in hidden manner and the added contents are written by the same scribe with same pen and ink in a normal and natural manner without having anxiety or hesitation. The fraudulently made additions are made in a very careful manner in a hidden manner and the perpetrator of the addition will try to add the required matter in such a manner that one cannot judge the same with naked eye. such addition are made by different or same person by using same or different pen and ink at a later stage with hesitation.
Sometimes the addition in typed document, lines are inserted at later stage and such addition will show different made of ink and also made of type writer may be different and in the present time of computer, addition may show different font of letters and digits.
Sometimes there is a dispute of age of the document because wills and other important documents are prepared lateron with mentioned of very old date.
Sometimes signatures or thumb impression of the concerned person are lying on the blank paper and body writing was written or typed or printed later on to prepared the document in a fraudulent manner.
Sometimes the document is shown to be very old but it bears the writing with gel pen or ball pen, when these pens were not in use as if a document is shown to be of year before 1950 bearing writings with ball pen or gel pens ,one can say safely that it is a fabricated document.
Some time in rent receipt are prepared in a fraudulent manner with mentioning of date of 1980 to 1990 having revenue stamp of worth rupees one.The revenue stamp of rupee one was introduced 13 may 1994 as per article 32 of the finance act,then one can say that these document are not genuine.
Some time fraudulently prepared document show printing of the writing with laser printer, which was not in use at that time
A document may be a piece of paper or full size paper or it may contain more than one page .some time in between pages are changed and sometime additional paper may be added in original document.
A document may be original or it may be photocopied document or scanned document and process of examination is related with condition of document and plea taken by the party in the case with regard to existence of the document.
Handwriting expert has to examined the signature to find out its genuineness or other wise.
The genuine signature may be written in a normal manner or it may the intentionally changed by the writer to deny them later on. The forged signature may be forged by the forger by process of copied forgery or traced forgery or free hand forgery or impersonation or by forgery over genuine signature.
The copied forgery is that in which the forged signatures are prepared by keeping in front the genuine/model signature of the concerned person. This type of forged signature contains tendency of the forger to copy the outer design of the letter and may show outward similarity of the pictorial appearance with the model signature of the concerned person and presence of line quality defects such as slow and drawn movement, lack of skill and rhythm , presence of tremors of hesitation, unusual pen pauses, careful joining ,concealed retouching etc. The forged signature will show lack of natural variations and presence of fundamental difference of writing feature such as writing speed, hand movement, shape, size, spacing, relative position, alignment, slant, pen scope, muscular coordination, mannerism of writing, writing impulses, pen pressure, shading as well as in the internal writing features such as angle formation, curve formation, staff formation, hook formation, eyelet formation etc. and the expert should form the opinion by cumulative examination of these writing features as it may never lead to an error in the opinion.
The traced forgery contains similarity of the forged signature with the genuine signature of the concerned person in the shape , size ,spacing, slant, alignment from commencement to end. In the traced forgery, the tendency of the forger is to traced the signature from the model signature of the concerned person available with the forger. The traced forgery may be direct or indirect depend upon the skill of the forger. The indirect traced forgery is that in which the guidelines of the genuine signature are first obtained on the required paper by keeping it below the document bearing genuine signature and then moving the instrument on the genuine signature and the indentations appears in the required paper are filled with ink and in direct tracing, the required paper is kept upon the paper bearing original signatures and both these paper are kept upon glass sheet having light source below it and when the original signature appear on the required paper through glass sheet, the ink instrument is moved on the required paper on the visible strokes and the forged signature will obtained on the required paper. The traced signature will show formation in labored manner and will show all the symptoms of copied forgery and line quality defects will be more and in the said signature similarity of writing feature as stated above are of no importance and one can show the forgery by preparing the transparencies on the transparent sheet.
The free hand forgery is the forgery committed by forger by keeping in mind design of the genuine signature and forged signature are produce by memory. Such forged signature may be written with more speed and line quality defects may be less but said forged signature will show difference in alignment, slant as well as there may be difference in the placement of letters and may be difference in spelling of words as well as connection of the stokes will be different and these difference are different from natural variations.
The forgery by impersonation is that in which the forged signature are produced by the forger in his/her own writing style or in some modified style without copying or tracing the genuine signature of the concerned person. These type of forged signature may not show line quality defects and some of the class writing features may be similar with the genuine signature due to writing system or pure chance but there will be present basic difference in the mode of formation between disputed and genuine signature. Sometime skill and speed of the forged signatures may be more than that of genuine signature and it is called DOWN RIGHT FORGERY, according to which a writer cannot write with higher degree of writing skill and speed than that of his/her normal writing speed.
The forgery over genuine signature is that in which signature is genuine and body writing is written later on.
The expert should also examine natural variations between the genuine signature before comparison with the disputed signature. The natural variations are present between sizing,lateral spacing and proportion.
The finger print expert should examined the thumb impression first from apex ridges because in left hand thumb impression , the apex ridges always slide to the left down side and in right hand thumb impression, the apex ridges always slide to the right down side .
After that basic pattern is compared. The basic pattern may be arch type , composite type , whorl type or accidental type.
The arch type pattern may be simple arch or tented arch and in these type of patterns there is no core point delta point is present .
The composite type pattern may be twinned loop type, lateral pocket loop type and central pocket loop type. The twinned loop type pattern consists of two loops, which are embracing eachother and are opening in the opposite directions. The lateral pocket loop type patterns consist of two loops, which are overlapping eachother and open in the same direction. The Central pocket loop type pattern having central ridges giving the appearance of WHORL and OUTER RIDGES giving the appearance of loop. These patterns are having always two delta points and two core points are present in the TWINNED LOOP TYPE pattern and LATERAL POCKET LOOP type pattern and one core point is present in the CENTRAL POCKET LOOP type pattern.
The WHORL TYPE PATTERN may be SPIRAL WHORL TYPE, ELLIPTICAL WHORL TYPE and CONCENRIC WHORL TYPE pattern. The SPIRAL WHORL TYPE PATTERN is having running of the ridges in clockwise manner in LTI and anti-clockwise running of the ridges in RTI and central ridges always runs from the core point to form a spiral circle. In ELLIPTICAL WHORL TYPE PATTERN, ridges from the central core point runs in an elliptical manner in clockwise in LTI and anti-clockwise in RTI. The CONCENTRIC WHORL PATTERN is having core point in the centre and ridges are running from the new point in clockwise manner in LTI and in an anti-clockwise manner in RTI. The WHORL TYPE PATTERNS are always have two delta points.
The accidental pattern has no shape and these may or may not have core or delta point.
The delta points are also called outer terminus and these may be formed as a RIDGE BIFURCATION or as DIVERGENCE OF RIDGES.
The core point is also called inner terminus and it may be like a dot or rode or at the tip of inner ridge.

2) Describe Skills required for Forensic Document / Handwriting Expert and Fingerprint Expert :
Expert should be skilled person and must have update knowledge regarding the examination of the documents.
Expert should not rely upon the facts described by the parties during handing of the document rather the expert should base the opinion on the basis of scientific examination.
In the recovery suit examination if the expert is engaged by the plaintiff, the signatures of the person to be examined should be taken from the documents filed by the defendant by keeping in view as to if the standard signatures have been written in a normal manner or have been written with an attempt of disguise because when a person denied his/her earlier written genuine signature on the document in dispute, the standard as well as specimen signature written after denial may show and attempt of disguise and in such cases expert should demand some old standard signature written by the concerned person on other document in a normal manner.
If the expert is engaged by the defendant in recovery suit matter, then the expert should always consider the standard signature from some other document written near or before the date of disputed signature to reach at absolute opinion.
The specimen signatures should be examined in careful manner to see that these have been written with attempt of intentional change or in normal manner. The changed signature will show change in the pictorial appearance or change in the slant or the writer may introduced artificial tremors and will show inter-se changes and on the other hand normally written signatures will show consistency and there will appear only natural variations in the sizing, lateral spacing and proportion.
In finger print examination, the process of ink applied on the thumb as well as pressure applied on the thumb during taking impression on the paper may affect the ridges visibility and each and every fact should be examined carefully.
In the examination of finger print, first apex ridges should be seen to determined as to if it is LTI or RTI.
After that basic pattern of the thumb impression should be compared because if basic pattern is different, then examination of ridges details is not required and if basic pattern is same then ridge details are examined to determine their identity or non identity and according to Apex Court of India, there should be atleast 8 points of ridge characteristics be identical at their same position/location with same number of intervening ridges between them.
The expert should also compare nature of the core point, number of the core points and their position in the impression during the process of comparison of disputed and standard/specimen thumb impressions. The comparison of core point is an important feature because nature, position and number of core points may be same in the different thumb impressions but these points cannot be present differently in the identical thumb impressions.
The expert should compare nature of the delta point , their position and number in the impression during the process of comparison of the disputed and standard thumb impressions. The comparison of delta point is an important feature because nature, position and number of delta points may be same in the different thumb impressions but these points cannot be present differently in the identical thumb impressions.
The expert should count intervening ridges between the core point and delta point because if number of intervening ridges is same then thumb impressions can be same or different and if number of intervening ridges is different then it is a definite proof of non-identity of the disputed and standard thumb impressions.
The points of ridge characteristics should be compared by the expert by taking core point or delta point or any other ridge detail point as the starting point and the other ridge characteristics should be marked from the starting point by counting number of intervening ridges between them and these points should be demonstrated on the photographs so that the concern authority or court can easily see the same.
The thumb impressions/signatures are sometime transplanted in the recent periods from one document to another document by trick photostatic technique or by computer scanning process and are pasted on the required document. The expert should examine the thumb impression/signature in question with care and with précised instruments to see as to if the same is affixed/signed directly or has been transplanted from some other document. The signature if transplanted will not show indentation mark on the back side and thumb impression if transplanted will not show spreading of ink on the margins. Such type of prepared documents by transplanting process may bears the body writings in original or the body writing may be Photostat and the expert can tell each and every fact after going through the same.
The disputed thumb impressions are sometime are partial impressions and point of core or point of delta may not be present in the partial thumb impressions. The expert should take special core during the comparison of the thumb impressions because if clear part of the partial impression is identical with the same portion of the standard/specimen thumb impressions, then the expert can safely say that disputed and standard/specimen are identical and if the thumb impressions are different then the expert can be cross examined that how he or she has affixed the same area of the disputed and standard/specimen thumb impressions because according to Finger Print Science, ridge characteristics are compared from the same area of the disputed and specimen thumb impressions. The expert should fix the same area in the standard/specimen thumb impressions by taking specimen thumb impressions in the rolled manner and should compare all the portions of the specimen thumb impressions and if specimen thumb impressions is not available then complete plain or rolled standard thumb impressions should be taken for comparison and by adopting this method there will be no chance of error in the opinion.
Sometimes thumb impressions are superimposed. The superimposition is the process in which original thumb impression is superimposed by another superimposing thumb impression. The superimposition may be genuine or fraudulent.
The genuine superimposition will show same ink of the originally affixed thumb impressions and superimposing thumb impressions and such type of superimposition is made when the originally affixed thumb impressions are faint in ink and in such type of impressions, there will never appear cross cutting of the ridges and the person will not bother to hide out the originally affixed thumb impression, whereas in fraudulently superimposed thumb impressions, the originally affixed thumb impression is intentionally hide out by affixing thumb impression of other persons upon the originally affixed thumb impression. In such type of superimposition, there will be present double margin, cross cutting of the ridges and difference of ink between the originally affixed and superimposing thumb impressions. The examination of such type of thumb impressions depend upon matter under examination because the impressions may be intentionally over-inked to avoid visibility of the ridges and sometime the originally affixed thumb impressions may show clear ridges on the margins. The superimposition may not be visible in one thumb impression but if there are more thumb impressions on other pages of the same document, then the nature of the visibility of the ridges will be different and sometime thumb impression on other page may be left for superimposition and the expert should examine each and every fact with care to bring the truth before the court.
Sometimes fresh documents are prepared fraudulently to show them old document by taking already affixed thumb impressions on the blank papers. A Scar Mark due to an injury may appear temporary or permanently in an impression. The temporary mark may disappear with the passage of time and the permanent mark remains in the thumb impression. If the permanent scar mark appear, For Instance, in the impression in year 2005 and document is shown to be of year 2014 without scar mark, then one can say safely that the thumb impression was obtained before 2005 and it is a fraudulent document.
The expert should examined the signatures and thumb impressions by going through all the contents of the case and nature of the document. The expert should also see the nature of the document as to if the same is unregistered document or registered document.
The expert should prefer the bank signatures as standard because the signatures of the bank are obtained by the bank officials in a routine and it is not possible to create a new account in the bank with old date i.e. it is not possible to prepare a fraudulent bank account and also the bank account bears identification of the old account holder and number of signatures are present on the bank documents and expert should take the same as standard if it can be made available for comparison purpose.
The specimen thumb impressions must be taken from both the hands. The thumb impressions should be taken as plain impressions as well as in a rolled manner on sheet and if possible one photograph of the concerned person should be affixed on the specimen sheet and also the photocopy or the voter card or Aadhar card must be attached with the specimen sheet to show its genuineness and specimen sheet must be identified by the Municipal Counselor and Sarpanch or Member Panchayat or Numberdar and must be attested by the Notary.
The specimen signatures must be taken in numbers on the specimen sheet in slow speed, medium speed and fast speed by the same person.
The document should be genuine in each and every respect. The genuine document generally bears thumb impression/signature of the executant in the middle after the last line and signatures/thumb impressions of the witnesses are obtained on the marginal sides.
The document should be examined with care because sometime alteration is made in the date writing in the documents such as pronote, agreement and cheques. Alterations may be made in the amount in the cheques in the cases where cheques are given by writing amount only in digits alongwith signatures. Such type of addition/alteration will show difference in the pen and ink.
Sometimes some data is erased mechanically or chemically from the document and other matter is added. The mechanical eraser may be sharp edge instrument which may be a knife or a blade and the area of erasing will show disturbance of paper fibres and decrease in the size of the paper and one can see by keeping the paper in the front of light source and the erased area will show passing of more light as compare to other areas.
The chemical eraser show apply of some chemical to erase the writing and such chemical examination can be seen under U.V Rays because U.V Rays gives different fluorescence due to application of the chemical.


3) Enlist and Explain in brief various types of fingerprint and handwriting related Crimes
The fingerprint crimes are of so many kinds and used in the routine life however the same is always detected by the expert when examined carefully and minutely.
The finger print are the main source to catch the culprit in theft cases by deciphering latent prints from the wall, door, handle, tables, Sofasets, Almirah, Box and other articles lying in the area of the theft.
The Finger Prints in the said articles are present as Latent Prints and expert can develop the same by Iodine Fuming or by spray of carbon and the developed print can be lifted by Cello Tape or the same can be photographed.
The Finger Prints may be present in the other criminal cases such as Murder, Extortion, Snatching etc. and the latent prints in such crime can be developed by the expert by the Ioding Fuming or Carbon Fuming Process.
The Finger Prints may be present on the anonymous letters and these prints may be in the form of visible print if the inked fingers touched the surface or they may be present in the form of latent prints which can be developed by Iodine Fuming or Carbon Fuming Process.
The Finger Prints may be present as thumb impression genuinely or otherwise on the disputed will. The thumb impressions may be partial or inked or may be superimposed in the unregistered wills because in the registered wills there are always more impressions obtained by the scribe and registration authority but on the unregistered will usually there is one thumb impression.
The thumb impression on the unregistered wills may be present on the blank papers obtained for some other purpose and sometimes these are used lateron by writing body writings afterward to prepare a fraudulent document.
The presence of scar mark in the thumb impression is also sometimes of very important value because if a document is of year 2014 and does not bear scar mark but the medial record shows that their occur a deep injury in the thumb causing permanent scar mark in year 2009, then it is clear that the thumb is not of year 2014 but was obtained before 2009 and in this regard one can establish even the age of the document.
Sometimes right thumb impression of a male is obtained on the will and when will is disputed, the specimen cannot be obtained due to death of the person and plea is taken that the right thumb was obtained due to an injury in the left thumb but the expert in such cases can ask the party or advocate or can make a request before the court to provide or to seek some criminal case file in which the said person was convicted because in such cases, the impressions of all the fingers of both hands are obtained and if such file is traced, then the expert can safely compare questioned thumb impressions with the specimen thumb impressions of both hands and can assist the court regarding the genuineness or otherwise of the said disputed thumb impressions.
The thumb impressions in civil cases are matter of dispute as in recovery suits, agreement cases and other declaration cases. The expert can take specimen thumb impressions of the person by calling them in the court or standard thumb impressions can be obtained from the documents of the case file and expert can submit its report after comparing the same.
The thumb impressions in criminal cases are also the matter of dispute, where different Farad are prepared by the Police and expert after comparing the different documents of the prosecution can tell as to if the said documents bear the thumb impressions of the accused or witness or not.
The signatures are also disputed one in so many cases. Sometimes wills are prepared by forging the signatures of the person and it is duty of the expert to take standard signatures of different periods for comparison purpose.
The signatures may be forged by tracing or copying or by impersonation and sale deed are generally forged by impersonation process
The mortgaged deeds or adoption deed are also prepared by impersonating the signature of the required person
The bank account may be wrongly operated by some other person by forging the signature of the genuine account holder or by putting thumb impression of other person
The digital signatures are also used in awrong manner to prepare the forged document by transplanting signature from one document to another document.
Some time a fraudulent resolution is prepared of the society or some organization by putting signature of different person in their absence by the beneficiary or by different person
Some time anonymous letters are sent to some house to cheat the members or to effect the character of the female in wrong manner
Some time fraudulent certificate are prepared by forging the signature of the consered authority and are misused to gain something
Some time insurance forms are filled by the agent for some other purpose and later on the same were converted to some other tabel of the policy by forging the signature of the consered person on other paper of insurance.
Some time stamp paper are taken by some other person by impersonating another person to prepare a wrong document for some gain
Some time addition are made in the account books by the financial running organization to increase the amount and it is also made in the cheque where four is converted to fourty in digit and words by adding “ty” and 0.
Similarly six is converted to sixty, eight is converted to eighty and this type alteration can be seen in the cheques given for monthly installment and these can be detected by examining the difference of pen and ink
Some time erasing are made in the document to add or delete some matter and these can be detected by making careful examination of the same.
The cases relating to handwriting and finger print are very common and these are called as white collar crimes.
The document may be added in the disputed document or may be taken out from the same and some time the pages are added in bahi or sometime pages are taken out and careful examination of the same are shows binding of the bahi again and the indentation of the originally blinded thread can be seen
The difference of pen and ink is also an important factor in such type of document where the dispute is regarding the identity of pen and ink .
The ink old document transferred on the back side due to oxidization of the ink with the oxygen of the air and the ink transferred to the back of the paper and it is not present in the freshly written documents
The stamp impression or seal may be in dispute and one can com[pare the same from other document and if there are more stamps on one document with different stamp pad ink , then one can say that these were affixed at different time because difference of ink due to affixation at different times.
Some time additions are made in fraudulent manner in the entry of the stamp paper purchase endorsement to show fresh date in the old purchase stamp paper to prepare a fabricated document
Sometime in the agreement bases where the last page or pages are left blank due to completion of body writing on the earlier pages, the said pages are cancelled by putting a long line from top to bottom and signature or thumb impression on the concerned person obtained on the lower side , in such cases sometime extension of the date writing are made by erasing the lines and writing the body writing on the said area these can be detected.
Some time plea is taken by the concerned person that he or she has not signed or thumb mark the said document but there signature or thumb mark are genuine . the expert should examined the same carefully because in actual the plea of the party is that he or she never executed this document and the examination of such document carefully all alone will reveal the truth that these are fabricated document.
Some time dates are altered in the documents to make them within valid date and plea is taken by the party that they have never executed these document .in actual the plea of the party is that they have never executed these document on the date written on the document so expert should examined the document thoroughly to find out the fabrication made in the said document
Some time there may be dispute of only ink in the document such as cheque regarding the similarity of ink in the date writing, amount writing name writing and by examining the same with précised instrument one can safely say about the ink.
The colored photo state copies are wrongly posed as original document and with the help of ultra violet rays one by seeing the fluorescence can say that the document is original or photocopy. 
• 4) Explain Chain of Custody :

Chain of Custody is very important factor in the filled of Forensic Science and it is connected with the collection of Sample from the scene of crime and upto providing of the same in the court of Law.

If in the Suicide case, A Suicide Note is recovered, then it is the duty of the expert to collect the same, produce the same in the court, then to prove it in the court of Law and the procedure is detailed as :-

1. The expert called at the scene of crime or the Police Officer present at the Scene of Crime if see a Suicide Note, then the said officer either expert or police should photograh the document and its surroundings to show the same in the court of Law, where the same was recovered.
2. The concerned officer should prepare a Farad of the same regarding its recovery and signature of some witness or some Gazetted Officer must be obtained regarding its recovery and in the said Farad, the time of recovery must be mentioned and if possible size of the document and its nature should be mentioned to prove the same in the court of Law.
3. The concerned officer should not touch the Suicide Note directly with hand rather Gloves should be worn in the hand and should touched the concerned document so that any latent finger impressions if present on the said document can be recovered and the said document should be put in the Polythene Sheet and then sealed and then a mark should be given on the Polythene Sheet and the same should be mentioned on the Farad so that it can be proved in the court of Law.
4. The recovered document bears writings and signatures and to prove the same, the officer should collect standard signatures and writings of the same person for comparison purpose.
5. The standard writings or signatures of the concerned person can be obtained from the bank record, from the sale deed, mortgage deed, will, Ration Card Form and writings from the personal Diary and if a student, then papers or school record can be obtained and if Govt. Employee, then the service record book can be collected from the Concerned Authority and the Concerned IO should prepare a Farad Memo of the same.
6. The IO should sent the Suicide Note and the writings to the Forensic Science Lab of State or Center by making a letter to the Lab and a constable must be sent with record of the letter to the Lab and the Constable should obtain a mark/signatures of the Official of the Lab regarding the receipt of document for examination purpose.
7. The IO should obtain the report from the Lab and should submit the same alongwith the disputed and standard documents in the court.
8. The IO should produce the photographer in the court who photographed the Suicide Note regarding its presence at the scene of crime and the photographs should be exhibited by the evidence of the photographer that these photographs were taken by me and were prepared by me in my lab and are free from any kind of touching or alteration.
9. The IO should call the person to prove the standard writing in whom presence standard signatures or writings are written because the said witness can prove in the court that the standard writings/signatures are written in his/her presence by the concerned person and these document should be exhibited in the court.
10. The IO should call the expert in the court to prove that the standard and disputed writings/signatures are written by the same person. The report and photographs were prepared by the expert should be exhibited and the opposite party or defense counsel must be allowed to cross examine the same.
11. The Suicide Note must be exhibited in the evidence of the expert as per section 65 to 72 of the Indian Evidence Act, according to which if there is no witnesses to the document, then expert can exhibit the document.

In a Theft Case, if there are symptoms of presence of Finger Prints on the object or at the scene of the crime, then the finger print expert should be called to trace out the same and the expert along with IO should work as :-
1. First of all the area of the scene of crime must be photographed so that any evidence which is not noticeable at the time of examination can be seen afterward.
2. The area of Finger Print Presence must be circled with any colored pencil.
3. The marked area should be given number and these are also should be photographed to produce the same in the court of Law regarding the presence of latent prints before development.
4. The Finger Prints must be examined by the expert with the help of magnifying glass and the affected area must be sprayed with Iodine Fuming or with concerned chemical for the development of the Finger Print Impressions on the object or articles of the affected area.
5. The Expert should photograph the area of Finger Print and marking should be given alongwith each impressions because the latent prints are always available as the partial impressions and these may be thumb or any finger.
6. The said photographs must be prepared completely and should be packed in the polythene Envelop and should be sealed and should be marked.
7. The specimen thumb impressions and Finger Impressions of the suspicious persons must be taken on the specimen sheets of both the hands and each sheet be given marking and detail of the same be kept by IO in the record to produce the same in the court of Law.
8. The Farad of the photographs taken from the crime scence and of the specimen sheet be prepared for the record to be produced in the court as evidence.
9. The specimen sheets must be packed in separate polythenes and then sealed the same and be sent to Finger Print Bureau alongwith the disputed thumb impressions photographs.
10. The disputed and specimen thumb impressions are compared by the Finger Print Expert by making photographs of the specimen thumb impressions also.
11. The Finger Print Bureau can also compare the disputed thumb impressions with the specimen thumb impressions kept in their record to find out as to if the crime was committed by the person whose record is lying in the Finger Print Bureau and criminal can be arrested on the report.
12. After finding the report of experts with regard to identity of disputed thumb impressions with the specimen thumb impressions, the report alongwith photographs must be submitted in the court.
13. The IO should call the photographer who took the photosnaps of the crime scence alongwith developed Finger Impressions and the same must be proved in the court that the photo were taken by the photographer and developed by him and must be exhibited.
14. The expert be allowed to cross examine from the opposite party or by the counsel of the accused to complete the chain of evidence

Similarly, there are other collection of samples from the crime scence depend upon nature of the crime as there can be blood stains, hairs, piece of cloth, cigarette filters, any sharp or blunt weapon or any other object connected with the crime can be present at the scence. The IO or the Forensic Expert present at the scence of crime must collect the samples in the polythenes or in the boxes depend upon the size and must decent to the related place of investigation and must prove the same in the court of Law.

The Collected objects from the scence of crime must be kept in safe custody to produce the same in the court of Law during the trial and to show the accused regarding the use of same.


• 5) Give any one ‘Case Study’ or ‘Case Example’ and mention how Forensic Document, Fingerprint or Handwriting Evidence was important in solving that case:

The Experiment Sheet has been prepared as a case study to file report in the court.
Regarding Signatures comparison.
The Specimen Sheet bears forged signature of mine at point D1 and genuine signature of mine at point D2 and my specimen signatures are at point S1 to S3.
Comparison of D1 signature with specimen signatures mark S1 to S3
The disputed signature mark D1 is written by some other person in his/her own writing style without coping or tracing the genuine signature.
The specimen signatures mark S1 to S3 have been written in a normal and natural writing flow, free from any attempt of disguise and are showing only natural variations in their sizing, lateral spacing and proportion and are providing sufficient data for comparison and are similar in their interse comparison.
The disputed signature mark D1 is found to be different from the specimen signatures mark S1 to S3 in their basic and fundamental writing characteristics, writing impulses and in their minute writing details, which are described as:-
The disputed signature mark D1 is written with medial writing speed by using Finger Cum Wrist Movement, whereas specimen signatures are written with rapid writing speed by using forearm movement.
Shape and formation of the letters, their relative size, spacing between the letter and relative positions of the strokes are found to be quite different between the disputed and specimen signatures and these differences are beyond the range of natural variations.
The alignment of the disputed signature is horizontal but alignment of the specimen signatures is ascending from left to right.
The writing slant of the letters is to the right down side in the word “Lupil” and to the left down side in the word “Gupta” in the disputed signatures, whereas in specimen signatures, it is to the left down side.
The muscular coordination of the writing, skill, rhythm, penmanship and line quality are of comparatively lower order in the disputed signatures than that of specimen signatures.
Style of the writing, pictorial appearance of the letters, their mannerism, mode of production and writing impulses are found to be different between disputed and specimen writings.
The writing pen pressure and shading are of medium nature in the disputed signature, whereas the writing pen pressure is less and shading is light in the specimen signatures.
The disputed and specimen signatures are also found to be different in their internal writing characteristics like turnings, curvings, junctions, eyelet formations, staff formation, hook formation etc.
The letter “L” is written with downward staff having right upside going terminal stroke in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, letter “L” is having downward staff with eyelet at the left bottom forming a broad curve around it.
The letter “u” is written with twisting of the stroke at the left and right apex in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is written like English letter “V”.
The letter “p” is having retracing on the upper side and lower side and the right side body portion is written at a curve in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is having long retracing with loop like formation at the apex.
The letter “I” is written separately without dot in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is written in-continuation with preceding letters and dot is written on the upper side separately.
The letter “l” is written separately with eyelet on the upper side and a long terminal stroke in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is written in-continuation with letter “I” having loop on the upper side and downward terminal stroke.
The letter “g” is having incomplete with deep curve eyelet on the upper side and narrow retracing at the bottom in the disputed signature, whereas in the specimen signatures, it is having broad deep curve on the upper side and downward staff with long loop at the bottom.
The letters “u” and “p” are written differently like the letters “u” & “p” of word “Lupil” between the disputed and specimen writings.
There is written additional stroke after the letter “u” in the disputed signature but not in the specimen signatures.
The letter “t” is written with downward staff and a curve at the bottom and cross bar is written on the right side of the staff in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is written in-continuation with letter “p” having retracing on the upper side and cross bar is written in the middle portion.
The letter “a” is placed at the bottom with elongated shape eyelet and diagonal terminal in the disputed signature, whereas in specimen signatures, it is written as an eyelet formation with short terminal.
REASONING
The above mentioned differences are of basic and fundamental nature and cannot be accounted due to natural variations or due to change in the pen, writing surface, supporting surface or other conditions of the writers.


COMPARISON OF D2 SIGNATURE WITH S1 TO S3 SIGNATURES.
The disputed signature mark D2 is found to be similar with the specimen signatures mark S1 to S3 in their basic and fundamental writing characteristics, writing impulses and in their minute writing details, which are described as:-
The disputed signature mark D2 and specimen signatures are written with rapid writing speed by using forearm movement in a similar manner.
Shape and formation of the letters, their relative size, spacing between the letter and relative positions of the strokes are found to be similar between the disputed and specimen signatures.
The alignment of the disputed and specimen signatures is ascending from left to right in a similar manner.
The writing slant of the letters is to the left down side in the disputed and specimen signatures in a similar manner.
The muscular coordination of the writing is good and smooth having genuine rhtym in the strokes showing good skill of writing and reveals smooth penmanship in a quite similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
Style of the writing, pictorial appearance of the letters, their mannerism, mode of production and writing impulses are found to be quite similar between disputed and specimen writings.
The writing pen pressure is less and shading is light in the disputed and specimen signatures in a similar manner.
The disputed and specimen signatures are also found to be quite similar in their internal writing characteristics like turnings, curvings, junctions, eyelet formations, staff formation, hook formation etc.
The letter “L” is having downward staff with eyelet at the left bottom forming a broad curve around it in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “u” is written like English letter “V” in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “p” is having long retracing with loop like formation at the apex in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “I” is written in-continuation with preceding letters and dot is written on the upper side separately in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “l” is written in-continuation with letter “I” having loop on the upper side and downward terminal stroke in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “g” is having broad deep curve on the upper side and downward staff with long loop at the bottom in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letters “u” and “p” are written similarly like the letters “u” & “p” of word “Lupil” between the disputed and specimen writings.
The letter “t” is written in-continuation with letter “p” having retracing on the upper side and cross bar is written in the middle portion in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
The letter “a” is written as an eyelet formation with short terminal in a similar manner in the disputed and specimen signatures.
REASONING
The above mentioned characteristics are of basic and fundamental nature and are similar due to common authorship of the disputed and specimen signatures and these are showing only natural variations in their sizing, lateral spacing and proportion as the hand is not a machine.

OPINION.
From the above noted detailed examination and comparison, I am of the opinion that :-
1. The disputed signature mark D1 is a forged signature by impersonation and is not similar in their writing characteristics with the specimen signatures of Lupil Gupta mark S1 to S3 i.e disputed signature mark D1 is not written by a person, who wrote specimen signatures mark S1 to S3.
2. The disputed signature mark D2 is a similar in their writing characteristics with the specimen signatures of Lupil Gupta mark S1 to S3 and have been written by one and the same person.

REGARDING COMPARISON OF THUMB IMPRESSIONS.

The thumb impression mark Q1 is compared with the specimen thumb impressions mark L1 of left hand and R1 of right hand.

COMPARISON OF Q1 WITH L1 LTI.

The disputed thumb impression mark Q1 is found to be different from the specimen thumb impressions mark L1 in their points, which are detailed as :-
1. The point of core is written is present as a hair pin like structure in the disputed thumb impression, whereas in specimen thumb impression, it is a rod like structure i.e nature of the core point is different.
2. There are present eight intervening ridges between the core point and delta point in the specimen thumb impressions, whereas delta point is not traceable upto 12th ridge toward the right of the core point in the disputed thumb impression i.e number of intervening ridges between the core point and delta point is different and it is fundamental point of difference between disputed and specimen thumb impressions.
The apex ridges of the disputed and specimen thumb impressions are sliding to left down side confirming that these thumb impressions have affixed from the left hand.

The basic pattern of disputed and specimen thumb impressions are of ULNAR LOOP TYPE in their basic pattern but this identity is of little significance as thumb impressions of the different persons can have same basic pattern.
There is no need to mention the points of ridge characteristics because the difference of point no.1 & 2 as mentioned above is of basic and fundamental nature and cannot be present in the thumb impressions of same persons.

The disputed thumb impression mark Q1 is also found to be different from the right hand specimen thumb impression mark R1 as :-
The apex ridges of the disputed thumb impression are sliding to left down side confirming that it is a left hand thumb impression and apex ridges of R1 thumb impression are sliding to right down side confirming that it is a right hand thumb impression, however it is noted that loop is opening toward left side in the disputed thumb impression and toward the right side in the specimen thumb impression.
REASONING
The above mentioned features are of basic and fundamental nature and are sufficient to conclude that disputed thumb impression is different from the specimen thumb impression.

COMPARISON OF THUMB IMPRESSION MARK Q2 WITH L1 (LTI)

The disputed thumb impression mark Q2 and specimen thumb impression mark L1 are found to be identical as :-
The disputed and specimen thumb impressions are of ULNAR LOOP TYPE in their basic pattern.
The apex ridges of the disputed and specimen thumb impressions are sliding to left down side confirming that these thumb impressions have affixed from the left hand.
The ridges of the pattern area are entering and exiting toward the left side after making a complete staple. The point of core is present as a rod like structure and point of delta is formed by divergence of ridges. There are present 8 intervening ridges between core point and delta point in Q2 & L1 thumb impressions in a similar manner.
The configuration of the ridges are found to be similar between disputed and specimen thumb impressions.
These thumb impressions are also found to be similar in their individual details such as ridge endings, ridge bifurcation etc. in their location/position and number of intervening ridges between them as :-
1. There is a RIDGE BIFURCATION to the left of the core point, next ridge to it.
2. There is a RIDGE ENDING to the south-west of the point no.1, next ridge to it.
3. There is a RIDGE ENDING to the north-west of the point no.2, three ridges intervening between them.
4. There is a RIDGE BIFURCATION to the south-west of the point no.2, seven ridges intervening between them.
5. There is a RIDGE ENDING to the south-west of the delta point, next ridge to it.
6. There is a RIDGE BIFURCATION to the north of the delta point, next ridge to it.
7. There is a RIDGE BIFURCATION to the north of the point no.6, next ridge to it.
8. There is a RIDGE BIFURCATION to the left of the point no.7, one ridge intervening between them.
9. There is a RIDGE ENDING to the right of the core point, one ridge intervening between them.
REASONING
The Science of Finger Print Examination is a perfect science and point mentioned above are sufficient to conclude the identity of the disputed and specimen thumb impressions as I did not find any point of difference between them.

OPINION.
From the above noted detailed examination and comparison, I am of the opinion that :-
1. The disputed thumb impression mark Q1 is different from the specimen thumb impressions mark L1 (LTI) & R1 (RTI) i.e disputed thumb impression mark Q1 is not affixed by a person, who affixed specimen thumb impressions mark L1 (LTI) and R1 (RTI).
2. The disputed thumb impression mark Q2 and specimen thumb impressions of left hand mark L1 to L3 are identical with eachother and have been affixed from the left thumb of same person.