AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK : According to science of handwriting examination, there occur changes in the writing/signatures of the same persons with the passage of time and some changes become consistent and permanent with specific period of the time, depend upon writer to writer and conditions thereon as per Anil Gupta Forensic Services.
Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time. An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes. Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services.
An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt.17th Jan, 1992 was in question. Earlier to know the age of the signature, age of document was determined by ink, paper, printing and subject matter examination. But the present study was carried out with the aim of postulating the changes that occurs in a person’s signature with the passage of time. A detailed analysis of 61 signature specimens dt.13/02/1992 to 26/11/1999 of the person carried out. The examination showed a clear variation in the signatures with due course of time as natural variations. Using these variations the age of the signature was determined and reported. The honourable court accepted the examiner’s report and acquitted the suspect.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK: Now many cases has been received by Anil Gupta Forensic Services relating to determination of age of signatures and opinion in many cases has been given by taking proper standard signatures from the bank record by summoning the same in the Hon’ble Court or from the Income Tax returns by summoning the record of the concerned Chartered Accountant or by examining the successive J-Forms and other relevant records available in a proper manner pertaining to case in hand. Many cases has been examined carefully and reports have been submitted and also appeared for evidence in the court regarding to determination of age of the signatures on the behalf of Anil Gupta Forensic Services and more study is also made and continuous to be made in this regard from the cases received by Anil Gupta Forensic Services for the determination of the age of the signature.
The examination of the ink with regard to determination of the age of the signature is correlated with each other. The inks may be printing ink, coping ink. Sometime chemical and other ink tests are required for the identification of the age of the document. Microscopic examination of the ink is also required for the determination of the age relating to ink problem and case in hand. Composition of the ink is any important factor in this regard.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK
According to Anil Gupta Forensic Services in establishing or disproving the genuineness of the disputed document there are great many questions according to ink. It is possible to determine in most instances the identity or differences, the relative age and sequence of ink writings. A great variety of question on the subject of ink can be answered definitely and are of proven value as evidence.
The age of the signature/ink according to Anil Gupta Forensic Services can be determined on the composition of the ink as examination of ink and its importance may be a determining factor in some cases concerning the validity or invalidity of a document. It is therefore important to be familiar at least with the major types of the ink their composition ad basic characteristics to the extent to which these facts may have significance for the document condition. As ink manufacturing improved from time to time, examination of these inks required the development of new techniques to identify or differentiate one kind from another with respect to determination of the age. There are wide variations in the quality, composition and manufacture of different inks in spite of possible similarity in the method of preparation. Writing inks consists of coloring matter dissolved in matter in low concentration. In addition to the color other ingredients are added to modify the properties of solution.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK: The ancient writing ink used as papyrus and vellum were made of several kinds of carbon lamp black and gum dissolved in water used on papyrus and vellum were made of several kinds of carbon lamp black and gum dissolved in water.
Chinese ink is made from shoot, lamp black and glue and other ingredients. Indian ink is a true black ink that has no tinge of some other hue. It is free from die and contains carbon as a pigment. Since it is very thick and heavy, it is not used for ordinary writing, except by artist or draftsmen, mostly on special paper with a special pen. It is indelible and cannot be removed chemically.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK: Iron gallo-tannate inks, the earlier known date for the combination of iron and tannin to make writing inks, is merely 2000 years after the invention of india ink. The most important raw material the gallo tannin acid is made from gall nuts obtained from the oak trees of Asia Minor. The old fashioned iron tannate inks which contains iron and tannate showed various definite changes after days, or months and especially after several years due to oxidation. The reaction of oxygen on iron and tannin in the ink expose to air, when farric salt is used, which is brown causes the ink to become faded or yellowish commonly known as rusted as weeks, months or years pass, depending on condition of exposure to light or dark. The modern permanent black or blue black writing inks. When ferrous sulphate is mixed with a solution of tannin acid some ferrous tennate is formed. This is almost colorless substance but on exposure to air, it is oxidized to ferric tannat, which is black. Blue-black ink contains a blue dye to give the original blue color and also ferrous tannate, which later forms the fast black ferric tannate.